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Notes on Contributors

Howard Besser is Director of the Moving Image Archive and Preservation Program at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts. He has been extensively involved in the movement to construct digital libraries and museums, and has taught, researched, and published extensively in the areas of technological change, and the social and cultural impact of new information environments.

John Bradley was the original author and designer of TACT from 1985 until 1992. He now works within the Centre for Computing in the Humanities at King's College London, where he is involved in both teaching and research. His research interests focus on alternative approaches to computer-assisted textual analysis, and on issues that arise from the modeling of historical data in computing systems. He has played an important role in the design and implementation of systems behind the Prosopographies of the Byzantine Empire/World and of Anglo-Saxon England, of the Clergy of the Church of England, of the Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi and the Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland, of the Stellenbibliographie zum "Parzival" Wolframs von Eschen-bach, of the Modern Poetry in Translation website, and a number of other research projects.

John Burrows is Emeritus Professor of English at the University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia, and was the Foundation Director of the Centre for Literary and Linguistic Computing in that university. His many publications in the field of computational stylistics include Computation into Criticism (1987). In 2001 he became the second recipient of the Roberto Busa Award for Humanities Computing. The lecture he gave on that occasion appeared in Computers and the Humanities (February 2003).

Roberto A. Busa entered the Jesuit order in 1933, and was ordained priest on May 20, 1940. He is Professor of Philosophy at Aloisianum's Department of Philosophy in Gallarate, at Gregorian Pontifical University in Rome, and at the Catholic University in Milan. He is internationally recognized as the pioneer of computational linguistics.

Hugh Craig is Director of the Centre for Literary and Linguistic Computing at the University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia. He also teaches English in the School of Language and Media where he is currently Head of School. His research in recent years has been in computational stylistics, applying evidence from the frequencies of very common words to authorial and stylistic problems in Early Modern English literature.

Greg Crane is Winnick Family Chair of Technology and Entrepreneurship, Professor of Classics and Director of the Perseus Project at Tufts University. Originally trained as a classicist, his current interests focus more generally on the application of information technology to the humanities.

Marilyn Deegan has a PhD in medieval studies: her specialism is Anglo-Saxon medical texts and herbals and she has published and lectured widely in medieval studies, digital library research, and humanities computing. She is Director of Research Development, Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College London, and was formerly Director of Forced Migration Online at the Refugee Studies Centre at Oxford University, a major digital library and portal for materials concerned with all aspects of refugee studies. She is Editor-in-Chief of Literary and Linguistic Computing, the Journal of the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing, and Director of Publications for the Office for Humanities Communication based at King's College London. Dr. Deegan has recently published a book, Digital Futures: Strategies for the Information Age, with Simon Tanner.

Johanna Drucker is currently the Robertson Professor of Media Studies at the University of Virginia, where she is Professor in the Department of English and Director of Media Studies. She helped establish the Speculative Computing Laboratory in 2000 to explore experimental projects in humanities computing. She is well known for her work in the history of written forms, typography, design, and visual poetics. Her scholarly books include: Theorizing Modernism (1994), The Visible Word: Experimental Typography and Modern Art (1994); The Alphabetic Labyrinth (1995), and The Century of Artists' Books (1995). Her most recent collection, Figuring the Word, was published in November 1998.

Harrison Eiteljorg, II, is a classical archaeologist who specializes in the architecture of classical Greece. He has worked to use computer technology in his own work and to explore how that technology can best be applied to the work of archaeologists generally.

Charles Ess is Distinguished Research Professor, Interdisciplinary Studies, Drury University (Springfield, Missouri) and Professor II in the Applied Ethics Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Trondheim). He researches, lectures, and publishes on computer-mediated communication (CMC) and Information Ethics, especially from cross-cultural perspectives; with Fay Sudweeks, organizes conferences and edits publications on cultural attitudes toward technology and CMC.

Ichiro Fujinaga is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Music at McGill University and the Chair of the Music Technology Area. He has degrees in music/percussion and mathematics from the University of Alberta, and a Master's degree in music theory, and a PhD in music technology from McGill University.

Michael Greenhalgh has been interested in computing applications in the humanities since playing with a Commodore PET-2001 in 1977 at Leicester University, England. Graduating to large Cyber machines, PDF 11s and then VAXes, and writing books on them, he started teaching humanities computing courses in 1980. Elected to the Sir William Dobell Foundation Chair in Art History at the Australian National University in 1987, he introduced similar courses there and, using powerful graphics machines, was ready with over 300 digitized images to start his web-server "ArtServe" ( in January 1994. This server now offers over 190,000 images, and receives about 1.3 million hits per week. Since 1997, his lecturing and seminar work has been done exclusively over the network from servers, via a video projector.

Jan Hajič is an Associate Professor of Computational Linguistics at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. His interests range from morphology of inflective languages to syntax and treebanking to machine translation, using extensively statistical methods in natural language processing. He has previously worked at Johns Hopkins University (Maryland), and at IBM Research (New York).

Susan Hockey was Professor of Library and Information Studies and Director of the School of Library, Archive, and Information Studies at University College London until July 31, 2004. She was Chair of the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing (1984–97) and a member, twice Chair, of the Steering Committee for the Text Encoding Initiative. Her current interests are markup technologies for the humanities and the history of humanities computing.

Nancy Ide is Professor and Chair of Computer Science at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. She has been involved in humanities computing and computational linguistics for 20 years. She was president of the Association for Computers and the Humanities from 1985 to 1995, and is currently co-editor of the journal Computers and the Humanities. She is also co-editor of the Kluwer book series Text, Speech, and Language Technology, and has co-directed the past four EUROLAN summer schools on various topics in computational linguistics. In 1987 she spearheaded the Text Encoding Initiative and served on its steering committee until 1997. She has published numerous papers on the application of statistical methods to language analysis, including computational lexicography, word sense disambiguation, and discourse analysis. Most recently she has been involved in developing standards for the representation of linguistically annotated resources, the creation of the American National Corpus, the development of an "intelligently searchable" corpus for historical research comprising materials from the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, and adapting language processing practices to the Semantic Web.

Michael Jensen was recently appointed Director of Web Communications for the National Academies: the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Academy of Engineering. He remains Director of Publishing Technologies at the National Academies Press, which makes more than 2,800 books (more than 500,000 pages) fully searchable and browsable online for free. In the mid-1990s, he helped establish Project Muse, the pioneering online journals project of Johns Hopkins University Press. For the University of Nebraska Press, he produced the first searchable publisher's catalogue available on the Internet, via Telnet, in 1990.

Matthew G. Kirschenbaum is Assistant Professor of English and Digital Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park. He does both theoretical and applied work in the digital humanities, participating in projects from the William Blake Archive to the Electronic Literature Organization. He has long-standing interests in images, interface, and visualization, and is co-developer of a software tool called the Virtual Lightbox. His book-in-progress, entitled Mechanisms: New Media and the New Textuality, is forthcoming from the MIT Press.

Robert Kolker is the author of a number of books in cinema studies, including the third edition of A Cinema of Loneliness: Penn, Stone, Kubrick, Scorsese, and Altman (2000). His textbook, Film, Form, and Culture (2nd edn., 2002) is an introduction to film with an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, containing moving image clips. Kolker was one of the first film scholars to put moving images on the Web, in a Postmodern Culture essay, "The Moving Image Reclaimed." He will soon publish a Casebook of essays on Hitchcock's Psycho and a critical work, Dreadful Landscapes in the Spaces of Modernity; Welles, Kubrick and the Imagination of the Visible. He has been Professor of English at the University of Maryland, and Chair of the School of Literature, Communication, and Culture at Georgia Tech.

Ian Lancashire, Professor of English at the University of Toronto, founded the Center for Computing in the Humanities there in 1986 and co-developed TACT (Text Analysis Computing Tools), with which he does research on Chaucer and Shakespeare. He now edits Representative Poetry Online, teaches a fully online course in reading poetry, develops the Early Modern English Dictionaries (LEME) database, and is a member of the Inter-PARES2 project. From 1992 to 2003 he presided over a Canadian learned society, the Consortium for Computers in the Humanities/Consortium pour ordinateurs en sciences humaines (COCH/COSH).

Andrea Laue is a PhD candidate at the University of Virginia. She is a technical editor for the William Blake Archive, a researcher in the Speculative Computing Lab, and a graduate instructor in the media studies program. Her research interests include narratol-ogy, cognitive poetics, textual studies, digital media, and information visualization. In her dissertation, she investigates narrative structuring as manifested in the emergent text, the nexus produced by the interactions of an interpreter and a literary artifact.

Andrew Mactavish is an Assistant Professor of Multimedia in the School of the Arts at McMaster University. He has published and presented papers in the areas of computer games, humanities computing, and multimedia. He currently holds a research grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) to study the cultural politics of computer game play. He is also a member of collaborative research projects, including Globalization and Autonomy (SSHRC-MCRI) and two projects funded by the Canada Foundation for Innovation: TAPoR (Text Analysis Portal for Research) and IRIS (Infrastructure for Research on Internet Streaming).

Willard McCarty is Senior Lecturer in Humanities Computing, King's College London, and editor of Humanist. Recently his research has centered on modeling and more broadly explored the intellectual integrity of humanities computing by probing and interrelating its disciplinary kinships. He is currently finishing a book on the field, for which the chapter included here is a preview. His primary research on modeling has drawn heavily on his Analytical Onomasticon to the Metamorphoses of Ovid, forthcoming when a sufficiently adventurous publisher can be found. Details at <>.

Jerome McGann is the John Stewart Bryan University Professor, University of Virginia and Adjunct Professor at Royal Holloway, University of London. His recent book Radiant Textuality: Literature after the World Wide Web, was awarded the Modern Language Association's James Russell Lowell Award (2002). He is currently developing digital resources for the interpretation of literary works. These include the collaborative environment IVANHOE and the 'Patacritical Demon.

Bethany Nowviskie is a doctoral candidate at the University of Virginia. She serves as design editor for the Rossetti Archive, and is the lead designer and manager of the Temporal Modeling Project. Her other SpecLab projects include Biblioludica, the Ivanhoe Game, and the 'Patacritical Demon. Nowviskie's dissertation theorizes and describes the production of digital environments that both promote humanistic interpretation and emerge from the interpretative acts of their users.

Carole L. Palmer is an Associate Professor at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research explores how information systems and services can best support the work of researchers. She is engaged in projects to develop information technologies that support interdisciplinary inquiry, discovery, and collaboration in the humanities and the sciences. Her recent publications include Scholarly Work in the Humanities and the Evolving Information Environment and Work at the Boundaries of Science: Information and the Interdisciplinary Research Process.

Daniel V. Pitti is project director at the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia. As project director, he is responsible for project design in general, and Extensible Markup Language (XML) and object-relational databases design and development in particular. Before coming to IATH in 1997, he was Librarian for Advanced Technologies Projects at the University of California at Berkeley Library.

Stephen Ramsay worked as a programmer and software engineer for the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia before becoming an Assistant Professor of English at the University of Georgia. He edits the online version of the journal TEXT Technology, and has lectured widely on subjects related to humanities computing, public policy, and software design.

Allen H. Renear is an Associate Professor in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science (GSLIS) at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, where he teaches courses in knowledge representation and document modeling, and, as head of the Electronic Publishing Research Group, leads research on XML semantics and document ontology. He has been involved in humanities-oriented electronic publishing, standards development, and research for over twenty years. Currently Chair of the Open eBook Publication Structure Working Group, he has served as President of the Association for Computers and the Humanities, on the Advisory Board of the Text Encoding Initiative, and prior to joining GSLIS, was Director of the Scholarly Technology Group at Brown University.

Geoffrey Rockwell is an Associate Professor of Humanities Computing and Multimedia in the School of the Arts at McMaster University. He received a BA in philosophy from Haverford College, an MA and PhD in philosophy from the University of Toronto and worked at the University of Toronto as a Senior Instructional Technology Specialist. He has published and presented papers in the area of textual visualization and analysis, humanities computing, instructional technology, computer games, and multimedia. With colleagues at McMaster University he set up an honors Multimedia program. He is currently the project leader for the CFI (Canada Foundation for Innovation) funded project TAPoR, a Text Analysis Portal for Research, which is developing a text tool portal for researchers who work with electronic texts. He recently published a book, Defining Dialogue: From Socrates to the Internet (2003).

Thomas Rommel is Professor of English at International University Bremen (IUB). He is a member of the executive committee of the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing (ALLC). His publications include a book on Byron's poetry (1995), Anglistik im Internet (1996), a study of Adam Smith (1999), and an edition of essays on literary hypertexts (forthcoming). He is co-editor of Prolepsis, The Heidelberg Review of English Studies. His research interests include theories of electronic text and the methodological implications of computer-assisted studies of literature.

Marie-Laure Ryan is a native of Geneva, Switzerland, and is currently an independent scholar based in Colorado. She is the author of Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence and Narrative Theory (1991), and of Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media (2001), which received the Jeanne and Aldo Scaglione Prize for Comparative Literature from the Modern Language Association. She is also the editor of two collections of essays, Cyberspace Textuality (1999) and Narrative Across Media (2004).

David Z. Saltz is Associate Professor of Drama at the University of Georgia. He is Principal Investigator of Virtual Vaudeville: A Live Performance Simulation System, funded by the NSF, and has published essays about performance theory and interactive media in scholarly books and journals including Theatre Research International, Performance Research, and the Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. He is also a practicing director and installation artist whose work focuses on the interaction between digital media and live performance.

Susan Schreibman is General Editor and Project Manager of the MacGreevy Archive, and editor of Collected Poems of Thomas MacGreevy: An Annotated Edition (1991). She is the founder and editor of the web-based Irish Resources in the Humanities. She is currently serving a two-year term on the TEI Council. Dr. Schreibman is Assistant Director of the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH), and an Affiliate Faculty member in the Department of English. Previously she was an Assistant Professor of Professional and Technical Communication at New Jersey Institute of Technology (2000–1), and the Semester in Irish Studies Newman Fellow at University College Dublin (1997–2000).

Ray Siemens is Canada Research Chair in Humanities Computing and Associate Professor of English at the University of Victoria; formerly, he was Professor of English at Malaspina University-College (1999–2004). He is President (English) of the Consortium for Computers in the Humanities/Consortium pour ordinateurs en sciences humaines and, in 2003, was Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for Computing in the Humanities at King's College London. Director of the Digital Humanities/Humanities Computing Summer Institute, founder of Malaspina University-College's Center for Digital Humanities Innovation, and founding editor of the electronic scholarly journal Early Modern Literary Studies, he is also author of works chiefly focusing on areas where literary studies and computational methods intersect, is editor of several Renaissance texts, and is co-editor of several book collections on humanities computing topics.

Abby Smith is Director of Programs at the Council on Library and Information Resources, where her work focuses on the development and preservation of research collections in all formats and genres. She worked as program specialist at the Library of Congress, and taught intellectual and Russian history at Harvard and Johns Hopkins. Her recent publications include: New-Model Scholarship: How Will It Survive? (2003); The Evidence in Hand: Report of the Task Force on the Artifact in Library Collections (2001); Strategies for Building Digitized Collections (2001); Building and Sustaining Digital Collections: Models for Libraries and Museums (2001); and Collections, Content, and the Web (2000).

Martha Nell Smith is Professor of English and Director of the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH) at the University of Maryland. Her numerous publications include three award-winning books – Open Me Carefully: Emily Dickinson's Intimate Letters to Susan Dickinson, co-authored with Ellen Louise Hart (1998), Comic Power in Emily Dickinson, co-authored with Cristanne Miller and Suzanne Juhasz (1993), Rowing in Eden: Rereading Emily Dickinson (1992) – and more than thirty articles in such journals as American Literature, Studies in the Literary Imagination, South Atlantic Quarterly, Women's Studies Quarterly, Profils Americains, San Jose Studies, and The Emily Dickinson Journal. With Mary Loeffelholz, she is editing the Blackwell Companion to Emily Dickinson (forthcoming in 2005). The recipient of numerous awards from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), and the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) for her work on Dickinson and in new media, Smith is also Coordinator and General Editor of the Dickinson Electronic Archives projects at the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia. With Lara Vetter, Smith is a general editor of Emily Dickinson's Correspondences, forthcoming from the Mellon-sponsored University of Virginia Press Electronic Imprint.

C. M. Sperberg-McQueen is a member of the technical staff of the World Wide Web Consortium, an international membership organization responsible for developing Web standards. He co-edited the XML 1.0 specification and the Guidelines of the Text Encoding Initiative.

Simon Tanner is the Director of Digital Consultancy Services at King's College London (KDCS). He has an international reputation as a consultant and has consulted for prestigious digitization projects in Europe and America. Tanner has a library and information science background and prior to KDCS was Senior Consultant with HEDS Digitization Services and held librarian and systems posts at Loughborough University, Rolls Royce, and IBM. He recently authored a book, Digital Futures: Strategies for the Information Age, with Marilyn Deegan; he co-edits the Digital Futures series of books from Facet Publishing and is a guest editor for the Journal of Digital Information.

William G. Thomas, III, is an Assistant Professor of History and Director of the Virginia Center for Digital History at the University of Virginia. He is the co-author with Edward L. Ayers of "The Difference Slavery Made: A Close Analysis of Two American Communities", a fully electronic journal article for the American Historical Review. He is the author of Lawyeringfor the Railroad: Business Law and Power in the New South (1999) and co-author of the Emmy nominee documentary film Massive Resistance. He is currently researching and producing a digital project on the environmental and social history of the Chesapeake Bay.

John Unsworth served from 1993 to 2003 as the first Director of the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities and as faculty in the Department of English at the University of Virginia. As the Institute's Director, he oversaw research projects across the disciplines in the humanities and published widely on electronic scholarship, humanities computing, and other topics. In 2003, he was appointed Dean of the Graduate School of Library and Information Science (GSLIS) at the University of Illinois, Urbana- Champaign, with appointments as Professor in GSLIS, in the Department of English, and on the Library faculty.

Claire Warwick is a lecturer at the School of Library Archive and Information Studies, University College London, where she is programme director of the MA in Electronic Communication and Publishing. She is also a research supervisor for Cambridge University's MSt in International Relations. She has previously worked at Sheffield University, Department of Information Studies, and Oxford University English Faculty and Humanities Computing Unit, and at Chadwyck-Healey Ltd. Her research interests center on the study of the use and impact of computing on humanities scholarship, and on the societal effects of electronic publishing. She is a member of the advisory panel for the Portsmouth Historical Records Series, e-press and the Digital Egypt for Universities project and is a visiting lecturer at City College Thessaloniki, Greece.

Susan Forscher Weiss holds a joint appointment in the Departments of Musicology and Romance Languages and Literature at the Johns Hopkins University. Her numerous publications include Bologna Q 18: l-Bologna, Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale, Ms.BolC Q 18 (olim 143), Introduction and Facsimile Edition (1998), chapters, articles, reviews, and entries in numerous scholarly publications. She has collaborated in web-based programming, exhibits, CD-ROMs, and audio tours. She has also been the recipient of numerous awards and fellowships for teaching and research including grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Council of Learned Societies, Harvard University, the Johns Hopkins University, and the Folger Shakespeare Library.

Perry Willett was appointed the Head of the Digital Library Production Service at the University of Michigan in 2004. He served as the Assistant Director of the Digital Library Program at Indiana University from 2001, and was a bibliographer at the Main Library of Indiana University from 1992 to 2001. He is the general editor of the Wright American Fiction project and the Victorian Women Writers Project, and is a member of the Text Encoding Initiative Consortium Council. He has written on electronic text and digital libraries.

William Winder is Assistant Professor of French at the University of British Columbia's French, Hispanic, and Italian Studies Department. He is on the board of directors of the Consortium for Computers in the Humanities and the editorial board of TEXT Technology, and he co-edits Computing in the Humanities Working Papers. His interests lie in computational and formalist approaches to the semantics of language and literature. See his website ( for recent publications and research.

Russon Wooldridge is Professor in the Department of French, University of Toronto. He is a teacher/researcher in French language, French lexicography, translation, and corpus linguistics of the Web. Research details and content at:

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